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is the oldest town in
the Moscow area. Its name means "city of chimes". The town grew up
beside the ancient Smolensk road leading on to Lithuania and Poland.
The area with its wooded hills and valleys is often called the "Russian
Switzerland". Some of the hills rise to 235 m (771 ft) above sea level,
35 m (115 ft) higher than Moscow's Vorobyovskiye Hills.
first historical mention
of Zvenigorod occurs in 1328, when Prince Ivan Kalita willed it to his
second son, Ivan, before he himself went to the Golden Horde with
tribute money for the Tatar Khan. Soon thereafter, the town was burned
to the ground by Tatars. Perhaps the tribute was considered to be
insufficient. The area revived under Prince Yuri, the second son Primce
Dmitri Donskoi. He ruled it from 1389 to 1434. Prince Yuri fortified
Zvenigorod and in 1404 the Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery was founded
at his request by the monk, Savva, a pupil of Sergiy of Radonezh.
Like St Francis of Assisi, St Savva counted the wild animals
among his friends. Legend tells us that St Savva even baptised Brother
Bear. Savva died in December 1407, and local traditions say that two
nights after his death, the brothers heard a noise as the bear climbed
over the wall. He came to the new grave and lay down upon it, and in
the morning it was found that he had died too so he was buried there,
alongside his master.
Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery is thought to have taken the second part
of its name from the observation point (storozha) on the hill where it
stands. This emplacement served as a vital defence point on Russia's
western border. The main road from Poland and Lithuania lay in full
view, and the border itself was only about 100 km (60 miles) distant.
The sound of the monastery bells could carry as far as Moscow,
strategically important in unsettled times.
In 1609 the whole town suffered badly from the depredations
of the Poles. The local bears were also a menace. Legend recounts that
Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich encountered an angry bear near the monastery
and that his frantic prayers were answered by the timely appearance of
a monk who called the beast off as though it had been a dog. The tsar
asked the name of his benefactor and was told, "Savva" before monk and
bear turned away into the forest. Only when he asked after him at the
monastery gate was he told that Savva had already been dead for two
hundred years. Thereafter the tsar contributed to the cost of the
monastery's original gate-church and came here frequently with his son,
the future Peter the Great.
The monastery lost its strategic importance after Smolensk
was united with Moscow in 1667. It gradually faded into obscurity. It's
once formidable guns were fired only to mark royal birthdays. During
Catherine the Great's campaign to improve the appearance of cities and
villages, new town plans were approved and implemented.
is worth the drive out to Zvenigorod from Moscow to see the Uspensky
Cathedral, built by Prince Yuri and surrounded by an earthen walled
kremlin or gorodok, meaning "small town".
was a palace here too, but only the cathedral has survived. As no late
14th century churches have survived in Moscow, it is of special
interest. The cathedral was built in 1396-99 and today stands among
some small houses. It is decorated by a triple frieze of carved stone.
The design is a simple cube with three apses and a simgle dome. The
walls are divided vertically into three and each is pierced by an
entrance door and decorated with carved stonework The frescoes, some
fragments of which still remain, were painted by Andrei Rublev,
considered to be the father of Russian icon painting.
current monastery of Savvino-Storozhevsky was built in 1650-54. Its
outer walls are 22 m (72 ft) thick and 8.5 m (28 ft) high. Of the six
towers, Krasnaya is undoubtedly the most impressive. The principal
building within the walls is the golden-domed Rozhdestva Bogoroditsy
(Nativity of the Virgin) Cathedral, also founded by St Savva and where
his grave lay until the time of the revolution in 1917. Prince Yuri
financed the construction of the limestone cathedral. In the 15th
Century it had frescos apparently belonging to the Andrei Rublev school
but these were covered with oil paintings in the 17th century. The
cathedral was partly reconstructed in 1972, and was reconsecrated in
built in 1652 by Sharutin has an octagonal tent-roof, in fact an
anachronism after Patriarch Nikon had decreed that cupolas should be
belfry has four bells, one huge one weighing 34 tons which was cast by
Alexander Grigoryev in 1667 and three small ones, gifts from Tsar
Mikhail Fyodorovich, founder of the Romanov dynasty.